THE experiments and observations detailed in the foregoing seven treatises, and the deductions drawn from them, when briefly summed up, yield the following axioms in physics and physiology:—
- The world-old observation, that the magnet reacts sensibly on the human organism, is neither " lie, deceit, nor superstition," as many naturalists at present think and declare; but is a well-grounded fact, a manifest physicophysiological law of nature.
- It is a tolerably easy matter, one that may be carried out anywhere, to attain conviction of the correctness and accuracy of this; for people are to be met with everywhere whose sleep is more or less disturbed by the moon, or who suffer from nervous indispositions; almost all these experience the peculiar excitation by the magnet, to a considerable extent, when it passes down them from the head over the body. Still more frequent are healthy and vigorous persons, who feel the magnet very vividly; many feel it more weakly; many detect it,but in a very slight degree; finally, the majority cannot peiceive it at all. All those who detect this reaction, and they appear to constitute a quarter or a third of the human race, are here denominated by the general term of " sensitive." (§ 66.)
- The perceptions of that influence present themselves, chiefly, to the two senses of feeling and sight: to the feeling, by a sensation of apparent (§ 217) coolness or tepid warmth (§ 225); to the sight, by appearances of light issuing from the poles and sides of magnets (§§ 8, 9, 15,) when the patients remain, for a long time, in deep obscurity.
- The capacity to exercise such influence presents itself not only in the steel magnet, which we produce in our workshops, or in natural magnetic iron, but nature gives evidence of it in an infinitely varied number of cases. In the first place, there is the entire globe, which, through terrestrial magnetism, acts more or less powerfully upon sensitive persons (§ 60, &c.)
- Then there is the moon, which, by means of exactly the same force, reacts towards the earth, and thus towards the sensitive (§ 118).
- Further, all crystals, natural and artificial, and those in the direction of their axes, § 31, 33, 35, 50, 55.
- In like manner heat., §121.
- Friction, § 127.
- Electricity, § 159.
- Light, § 131.
- The rays of the sun and stars, § 97, 208.
- Chemism, to an especial extent, § 137, 142.
- Then the organic vital force, both in a, Plants, § 25; and also in b, animals, particularly man, § 79.
- Finally, the total material world, § 174, 213.
- The cause of these phenomena is a peculiar natural force, which extends over the whole universe, (§ 213, 214) different from all hitherto known forces, and here designated by the word " Od," § 215.
- It is essentially different from that to which we have hitherto applied the name of " Magnetism," (§ 42) for it does not attract iron, (§ 37) nor magnets (§ 24, 38); bodies charged with it are not determined in particular directions by the terrestrial magnetism, (§ 42); they do not affect the suspended magnetic needle, (5 38); they are not disturbed, when suspended, by the vicinity of an electric current, (§ 39); and they do not induce any galvanic current in metallic wires, (§ 40).
- Though different from what we call magnetism, it presents itself in all places where magnetism appears,' § 43.
- But, on the other hand, magnetism by no means appears everywhere that Od presents itself: this force, therefore. has a proper existence, independently of magnetism: magnetism, however, is never free from a connection with Od, § 43, 44.
- The odic force possesses polarity. It appears at the two poles of the magnet with constantly different properties: at the northward (§ 225, Note) it produces a sensation of coolness in the feeling, as a rule, in the pass downward, and in darkness a blue and bluish grey light; the southward pole, on the other hand, a sensation of tepid warmth, (§ 225) and a red, reddish-yellow, and reddish-grey light. The former is connected with a decided pleasure, the latter with discomfort and uneasy pains. Next to magnets, crystals (§§ 32, 50, 55, 220, 221) and living organic beings (§§ 84 to 89, 253) exhibit. the odic polarity most distinctly.
- In crystals, the odic poles occur at the poles of the axes (§ 32); in crystals with several axes, there are several odic axes, of unequal strength.
- In plants, the ascending trunk is, as a whole, opposed in polar quality to the descending; but there are countless other subordinate polarities in all the separate organs. (§ 248, et seq.)
- In animals, at least in man, the entire left side stands in odic opposition to the entire right (§ 226) The force is concentrated into poles at the extremities, in the hands and fingers (§ 254); and in the two feet (§ 23); more strongly in the former, more weakly in the latter. Within these general polarities, however, occur countless minor subordinate special polarities of the individual organs as opposed to each other, and as exhibiting an independent bi-polar condition in themselves (§ 254). Men and women do not differ qualitatively in the odic characters (§ 227.)
- On the globe, the north pole is regarded as positively magnetic, the south pole as negatively; in accordance with this, the northward pole of the suspended needle as negative, the southward as positive. In agreement with this, I have taken the south pole, which goes with the negative magnetic
pole, in like manner for negative, " od-negative," = -od;
the other, opposite pole, for " od-positive," = +od. (§ 231 )
In crystals, therefore, the pole giving the cold downward pass, is ad-negative, the warmth-giving, od-positive (§ 231.) In plants, on the whole, the root is od-positive, the stem and its apex od-negative (§ 252.) In man, the left side, its hand and finger-ends, arc warm, disagreeable, and red-luminous; therefore od-positive the right side, hand and finger-ends, are cool, pleasant, and emit a blue light; therefore are od-negative (55 226, 231) It will not differ in any animals (§ 253).
- In direct sunlight, the red ray and those below it appear od-positive, the blue and those above it—that is, the so-called chemical ray—od-negative; the spectrum is, therefore, odically polarized (§ 116)
- Amorphous bodies, without crystalline arrangement of their integral components, exhibit no separate polarity; but each acts singly, within its limits, as odically warm or cold to the feeling; and this reaction exhibits different degrees of intensity in different substances, so that they thus arrange themselves in succession, and form a continuous chain of gradations, in the same way as they form a series according to their electrical nature, which we call the " electro-chemical." Exactly in the same manner do all simple substances combine in an odic series, which has the strongest positively od-polar bodies at one end, as potassium, &c., and at the other, the strongest od-negative, like oxygen, &c. And since this natural grouping appears almost to coincide with the electro-chemical, it may be called the od-chemical series (§ 236).
- Heating (§§, 122, 245) and friction (§§ 129, 246) display + od; cooling (§ 123) and the light of fire —od. (§§ 131, 240, 244.) — Chemical action varies, in its odic value, according to the character of the substances brought into action (§§ 139, 142, 247.) But, in far the greater number of cases, they have hitherto been found od-negative.
- Of the heavenly bodies, those which have no proper light, as the moon and the planets, appear od-positive in their principal effect (§§ 119, 208, 239); those which are illuminating, like the sun and fixed stars, od-negative in their chief effect (§§ 100, 208, 239). But the spectrum of them, again, shows itself polarized (§ 116).
- The odic force can be conducted in bodies; all solid and fluid bodies conduct Odto distances as yet unmeasured, Not only metals, but also glass, resin, silk, and water, are perfect conductors (§§ 47, 81, 113, 118, 121, 141, 167, 203). In a somewhat smaller degree only do less connected bodies conduct: such as wood, paper, cotton stuffs, wool, Ste. There are, therefore, some, though only weak, obstacles to the transition from one body to another.
- The conduction of Od is effected much more slowly than that of electricity, but much more rapidly than that of heat; it may almost be followed, on a long wire, by making haste.
- Od may be transferred, he brought from one body on to others; or at least a body in which exists a manifestation of free Od, will produce a similarly odically excited condition in another (§§ 29, 45, 72, 82, 105, 118, 143, 198, 202).
- The transfer is effected through contact. But a mere approximation, without actual contact, suffices for it, though with weaker effect (§ 202)
- The transference is not performed very quickly, but requires some time, several minutes, for its completion (§ 48).
- Neither in conduction, nor in transference, does polarity appear in the establishment ofOd in the bodies;
this appears rather to be an application of a certain molecular arrangement to the matter.
- The duration of the odic condition in bodies, after complete charging, and the removal of the charging object, is brief, different according to the quality of the material, seldom perceptible, beyond a few minutes, to healthy vigorous, sensitive persons (§§ 82, 167, 169); sometimes sensible, even after some hours, to diseased, highly sensitive persons; for instance, in magnetised water. Matter, therefore, possesses a certain coercive power over Od (§§ 46. 83, 112, 205).
- Bodies which have been odized by conduction, or charging,—e. g. metallic wires,—afford sensible emanations of Od at their opposite extremities; warm or cool, positive or negative, like the poles from which they issue (§§ 107, 114, 110).
- Od shares with heat the peculiarity of two different conditions one inert, slowly making its way through matter, a radiation (§§ 193, 254). In the last condition the Od from magnets, crystals, human bodies (§ 254), and hands, is felt, by healthy sensitive persons, instantaneously, and without any perceptible interval of time, at the distance of a long suite of rooms. All the processes which the inert Od diffuses slowly over bodies are radiated by it, simultaneously, in all directions, but with varying strength; thus friction, electricity, heat, chemical action, matter in general (§ 201). The rays of Od penetrate clothes, beds, boards, and walls (§ 23, note), but evidently less easily and quickly than niagnetism, and with a certain slowness. The conduction and transfer by means of mere approximation of the poles of crystals and magnets, the hands, amorphous bodies of high od-polar rank, &c., appear all to depend on radiation of Od; to which, therefore, belongs also the so.called magnetization of sensitive human beings.
- Electric currents, conducted through sensitive persons, produce no observable odic excitement, nor do they affect them immediately, perceptibly differently from all other persons (§ 160); but mediately, more strongly in proportion as they produce odic disturbances in other bodies (§ 167). Metals placed within the sphere of electrical action exhibit the most vivid phenomena of Od (§ 168).
- The light, which odically excited bodies emit, is always weak, and from this weakness, is not visible to every eye. Persons who are not exceedingly sensitive, are obliged to remain for a whole hour, or even two, in absolute darkness, before their eyes were sufficiently prepared to be fit to perceive the odic light, and it was necessary that they should not, during this time, have received a trace of other light. But the cause of this cannot lie in a special acuteness of the eye alone, because all who see Od light are, without exception, gifted with the peculiar excitability to detect the odic impressions by feeling, to distinguish them according to apparent warmth or coolness, according to agreeable or unpleasant sensations, which are not subject to change. Since these different capacities are always all present, simultaneously, in particular persons, or are all simultaneously absent, they must be regarded as connected, and appear to depend upon a peculiar disposition of the whole nervous system, which we are unacquainted with, ands not upon a special quality of separate organs of sense.
- The odic light of amorphous bodies is a kind of inward and outward glow, showing through the entire mass, like phosphorescence, and perhaps depending on the same cause; a thin luminous veil, like a delicate down-like flame, surrounds it (§ 207). In different bodies this light occurs of different colours—blue, red, yellow, green, purple, mostly white and grey. Simple bodies, especially metals, are most brightly luminous (§ 206); compounds, like oxides, sulphurets, iodides, hydrocarbons, silicates, salts of all kinds, glasses, nay even the walls of a room, are all luminous (§ 206).
- Where the odic light occurs polarized, as in the
magnet (§ 3, 6), and in crystals (§ 55), it forms a flame-like stream, issuing from the poles, proceeding almost in a right line from the arms of the magnet, and the axes of the crystals, and spreading out somewhat at a distance from the poles, while it diminishes in intensity of light. It displays all the brilliant colours of the rainbow (§§ 9, 13) but remains predominantly red, at the positive poles, and blue, at the negative. At the same time, magnets, crystals, and hands, like the amorphous 1 odies, remain luminous, glowing odically throughout their mass, and in like manner surrounded by a fine luminous vapoury veil (§ 8).
- Human beings are luminous almost all over the surface of their bodies, but especially on the hands (§ 92), the palms of the hands, the points of the fingers (§ 93), the eyes, different parts of the head, the pit of the stomach, the toes, &c. Flame-like streams of light of relatively greater intensity flow from the points of all the fingers, in a straight direction from where they are stretched out.
- Electricity, even the mere electrical atmosphere, produces and strengthens the odic luminous phenomena in a high degree (4 167); not, however, instantaneously, but after a short pause of a couple of minutes (§ 169).
- The electro-magnet behaves like the common magnet in regard to the odic light emanations (§ 12); and it is capable of strengthening the luminous phenomena, simultaneously, in just the proportion that it is susceptible of magnetic exaltation.
- The rays of the sun and moon produce odic charging in all bodies on which they fall; and this, conducted by wires into the dark, gives odic flames at their points (§§ 114, 119.)
- Heat (§ 125), friction (§ 129), and the light of fire (§ 134), produce visible luminosity on wires and their points carried into the dark; a flame resembling that of the candle.
- Every chemical action, though merely a simple solution in water, or a resumption of water of crystallization by effloresced salts, effects exactly the same, in a strong degree, on wires inserted in them (4 146). But processes of decomposition independently emit odic flames, and diffuse odic glow (§ 145).
- The positive pole gives the smaller, but more luminous flame; the negative, the larger but less intense: the former became yellow and red; the latter became blue and grey. The odic flame radiates light which illuminates other bodies in the vicinity. It may be collected by glass lenses, and concentrated into a focus (§ 18). The luminous odic emanations of bodies, and their poles generally, must therefore be distinguished from odic light, in the narrower and more peculiar sense of the word.
- All odic flame may be made to flicker by currents of air; be diverted, caused to wave, blow about, and broken up by blowing on it (§ 20); meeting with solid bodies, it bends round them, follows their surface, and streams forward on them, like flames of common fire (§ 20); it is evidently of wholly material nature.
- We can give it any direction we please,—upward, downward, toward any side; it is, therefore, up to a certain point, independent of the influence of terrestrial magnetism (§ 20, 23).
- The emanations of odic light seek plane and solid angles, and points (4 3), and, like electricity, find more ready issue there, agreeing with the obstacles to transition observed in conduction; at such places the differences of ternperature and luminous phenomena are always manifested in greatest strength (§ 114).
- The odic flames issuing from opposite poles exhibit no tendency to unite with each other: no perceptible mutual attraction occurs, and thus there is here a total difference from the magnetic agent (§§ 3, 9).
- All od-positive bodies emit warm, all od-negative cool odic flames (4 223). The odic flames, therefore, bear, in
reference to the apparent temperature, the character of their pole; and this consequently affords an expression of the odic quality of the body to which they belong (5 241).
- In many conditions of disease, especially in cataleptic attacks, a peculiar kind of attraction has been observed, exercised by the od-pole of magnets, crystals, and the hands, for the abnormally sensitive hand (§ 23). It is similar to that of the magnet for iron, but is not reciprocal (§ 24, 54); i.e., the sensitive hand does not on the other side exercise any perceptible attraction for the od-poles (§ 23, 91). Even objects rendered odic by conduction and transfer, produced this striking effect to some extent (§ 28).
- In the animal organism, night, sleep, and hunger diminish the odic emissions; food, daylight, and activity elevate and increase them (§ 260, 262). In sleep, the focus of odic activity is removed to different parts of the nervous system (§ 268). Within the twenty-four hours of the day and night, a periodical fluctuation, a decrease and increase of it, occurs in the human body (§ 265).
- Certain applications of the odic laws, discovered in the present researches, have been made, in the partial explanation—of the so-called magnetized water (§§ 27, 28, 73, 105, 112); of the light in rapid crystallization (§ 55); of the luminous appearance observed over graves (§ 158); of the mysterious affairs in Pfeffel's garden at Colmar (§ 156); of the so-called magnetic tub (§§ 135, 151); of certain effects of digestion (§ 152); of respiration (§ 153); of many strange antipathies of mankind (§ 175); of the necessity of placing sensitive diseased persons in the magnetic meridian (§§ 69, 71); of the attraction of magnets and hands for cataleptic persons (§ 23); of the odic condition of the human body (§ 79, et. seq.); of the daily and hourly alterations of this (§ 256); and lastly, of some of the peculiarities and causes of the aurora borealis (§ 21).